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Short history of rouge

The short history of rouge in the Mediterranean region and Far East Asia or ‘If it is red, purple, orange, lavender or pink, use it!’

Rouge may have been the earliest cosmetic invented by humans (red earths)
–Though this is the issue of ‘chicken versus egg’ as most of these cosmetics could have been also used as lip color
•Used in ancient Mesopotamia, in the Aegean, in the Middle East and Far East and Southeast Asia
•The application of rouge continued through the High Medieval period and Renaissance
•No proof that Egyptians used a rouge (the function of the Cypriot scented pink powder is ambiguous)
•Both toxic and non-toxic substances were used as rouge
•Many colorants were used as dyes in textile processing
•Colorants sourced from minerals, plants and animals.

Hematite and red ochre –the oldest mineral ingredients
•Hematite -mineral form ofiron (III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxids(red earths)
–Earliest proof of use comes from ancient Sumer (city of Ur), ~3rd millennium BCE

https://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=368294&partId=1&matcult=9036&sortBy=objectTitleSort&page=1


–Ingredient of choice till medieval Persia
•Red ochre – clay earth pigment which is a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand
–Used for both cheek and lip color
–The painted faces and ears in Minoan culture were done with red ochre paste (ointment).

Red ochre in animal fat base on Caterina Sforza’s foundation. A cheaper though not so bright alternative to vermilion.

Toxic mineral ingredients
• Vermilion – brilliant red and scarlet pigment originally made from the powdered mineral cinnabar
• Cinnabar – bright red mineral consisting of mercury sulfide, natural ore.
• Realgar – orange red arsenic sulfide mineral, known as masculine yellow, bull’s blood or sandarac.
• Naturally occurring form of lead tetroxide, also known as red lead (minium).
• Vermillion was most desired and the most expensive ingredients for rouge from Bronze Age to Renaissance and later
• Vermilion color was unmatched until mid 20th century when intense red pigment was obtained from petroleum production byproducts.

Vermilion based rouge sample for the Northern Wei cosmetic project (5th century CE) and minium based rouge sample (medieval China).

Colors extracted from plants
•Madder
•Alkanet
•Brazilwood (sappanwood)
•Red sandalwood
•Gromwell (Far East)
•Malabar spinach seeds (Far East)
•Carthamin from safflower (Far East)
•Black mulberry fruits
•Rose petals
•Orchil extract (purple dye extracted from lichens)
•Red poppy flower
•Dregs of wine

The dyes were used in liquid form after extraction (like alkanet) or precipitated as lakes (salts) with alum on base of flour, starch, clay, gypsum (like madder or sappanwood).

Alkanet rouge on Caterina Sforza’s foundation.
Red sandalwood on Caterina Sforza’s foundation.
Orchil on the Londinium foundation.
Red poppy flowers on the Londinium foundation.
The petals of red poppy (Papaver rhoeas) are used fresh or soaked in tiny amount of water before use. It is quite possible that red-colored petals from various flowers were used directly on unprepared skin (without any base) by less well-to-do women. Gathering petals would not have required a trained slave to prepare the cosmetic or money to buy ready products.
Image may contain: one or more people and closeup
Red poppy flowers on natural skin.

Colors extracted from insects
•Kermes – best was collected in Armenia (late antiquity and early medieval period) and Poland (High Medieval period)
•Lac (India and Far East) –deep red colorant extracted from the crude shellac resin excreted by the lac insect, indigenous to southeast Asia
–gives nice pink color on starch base
•Cochineal from Dactylopiuscoccus
–late arrival, used mostly in 16th century and later
•Purpurissum – Tyrian purple (Ancient Greek: πορφύρα, porphúra; Latin: purpura), also known as Tyrian red) dyeing bath mixed with any kind of white earth (like chalk, gypsum, kaolin) and dried to powder
–Tyrian purple dye comes from secretion produced by several species of predatory sea snails in the family Muricidae, rock snails originally known by the name Murex.

Lac dye on millet flour (China 4-6th century CE).
Lac rouge applied on the modified 胡粉 (húfěn) foundation. This is my favorite rouge and I usually have quite a heavy hand when I apply it to my face (I layer it several times).

A note on presentation for the non-toxic rouge
1 – lead white base in lard base with starch (based on 6th century China recipe from Qimin Yaoshu (齊民要術) and analysis of excavated sample of 胡粉  (húfěn) from 2nd century CE) – reference sample

2 – safe lead white alternative (titanium dioxide, starch, ground pearls) in lard base (modified from 6th century China recipe from Qimin Yaoshu (齊民 術) and analysis of excavated sample of 胡粉 (húfěn) from 2nd century CE)

3 – Londinium ointment (2nd century CE) (tin oxide IV in beef suet base, starch)

4 – safe lead alternative (titanium dioxide) makeup based on Caterina Sforza recipe from late 15th century (in rose water base with starch and micronized mica).

Recreated historical foundations. No.1 is a reference sample and Nos. 2, 3, 4 are made with ingredients generally considered as safe for use in cosmetics.


The ideal skin was fair and smooth, not white/whitish, and this beauty canon seems to prevail across Europe and Asia for millennia, very often regardless of gender.
Egyptians were wiser and seemed to enjoy a golden skin tone, brushed with tiny amount of pink.

Selected references

Bimson, M. (1980). Cosmetic Pigments from the “Royal Cemetery” at Ur. Iraq, 42(1), 75. https://doi.org/10.2307/4200116

Diamandopoulos, A. A. (1996). Organic and inorganic cosmetics in the preclassical Eastern Mediterranean. International Journal of Dermatology, 35(10), 751–756. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4362.1996.tb00659.x

Dusenbury, M. M. (2015). Color in ancient and medieval East Asia.

Early Chinese Cosmetics. (Alec Story). Retrieved June 15, 2020, from https://sundries.alecstory.org/2017/11/early-chinese-cosmetics.html

Farnsworth, M. (1951). Ancient pigments: Particularly second century B.C. pigments from Corinth. Journal of Chemical Education, 28(2), 72. https://doi.org/10.1021/ed028p72

Jia, S., & Shi, S. (1974). A preliminary survey of the book Ch’i Min Yao Shu : an agricultural encyclopaedia of the 6th century = Qimin yaoshu gailun (2nd ed.). Science Press.

Kelly Olson. (2009). Cosmetics in Roman Antiquity: Substance, Remedy, Poison. Classical World, 102(3), 291–310. https://doi.org/10.1353/clw.0.0098

Nosch, M.-L., & Laffineur, R. (2012). KOSMOS : jewellery, adornment and textiles in the Aegean Bronze Age. Peeters.

Partridge, J., & Holloway, J. (2010). The treasurie of commodious conceits,  & Hidden Secrets, and may be called, The huswiues closet, of healthfull prouision. 1573. http://eebo.chadwyck.com/about/about.htm#chron

Pasolini, P. D. (2011). Caterina Sforza. Documenti (Vol. 3). Nabu Press. https://www.amazon.com/Caterina-Sforza-Italian-Desiderio-Pasolini/dp/124824365X

Pérez-Arantegui, J., Cepriá, G., Ribechini, E., Degano, I., Colombini, M. P., Paz-Peralta, J., & Ortiz-Palomar, E. (2009). Colorants and oils in Roman make-ups-an eye witness account. In TrAC – Trends in Analytical Chemistry (Vol. 28, Issue 8, pp. 1019–1028). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2009.05.006

Pointer, S. (2005). The artifice of beauty : a history and practical guide to perfumes and cosmetics. Sutton.

Rapp, G. R. (2009). Archaeomineralogy (2nd ed.). Springer.

Ribechini, E., Modugno, F., Pérez-Arantegui, J., & Colombini, M. P. (2011). Discovering the composition of ancient cosmetics and remedies: Analytical techniques and materials. In Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (Vol. 401, Issue 6, pp. 1727–1738). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-5112-2

Schafer, E. (1956). The Early History of Lead Pigments and Cosmetics in China. T’oung Pao, 44(1).

Stewart, S. (Susan M. (2007). Cosmetics & perfumes in the Roman world. Tempus.

Van Elslande, E., Guérineau, V., Thirioux, V., Richard, G., Richardin, P., Laprévote, O., Hussler, G., & Walter, P. (2008). Analysis of ancient Greco–Roman cosmetic materials using laser desorption ionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 390(7), 1873–1879. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-008-1924-0

Wouters, J., Grzywacz, C. M., & Claro, A. (2010). Markers for Identification of Faded Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Colorants by HPLC-PDA-MS: ANCIENT FIBRES, PIGMENTS, PAINTS AND COSMETICS DERIVED FROM ANTIQUE RECIPES. Studies in Conservation, 55(3).

If you like to make your own accurate rouge like the ones presented here, please contact me for detailed recipes.
Please check before attempting any experimentation for potential allergens. Nobody should be harmed by the hobby!

Starting your own journey into historical perfumery – equipment, tools, aromatics suppliers.

I have started putting together a list of the basics needed to start your own fragrance research laboratory at home. Here are my suggestions for tools and suppliers I have tested before.

Equipment and tools
Most items can be purchased on eBay, Amazon, science surplus store on university campuses.

Keep the tools/utensils separate from the regular cooking ones!


•Scale/balance
•Single use muffin forms for weighing
•Distillation apparatus
(for custom orders of glass sets visit https://historicalglassworks.com/)
•Source of heat (apartment living limits me to use of the electric stove top and tea lights use for open fire source)
•Flat and round bottom Florentine flasks
•Bowls of different sizes (I like glass)
•Tools for mixing like spoons, glass rods
•Funnels (I recommend stainless steel or glass ones, it is possible to also order custom made pottery funnels and sieves)
•Dark glass bottles for storage (I like the round boston glass bottles, the caps can be easily replaced as they tend to degrade)
•Larger containers for storing prepared waters (I recycle glass jars)
•Bain-marie or double boiler
•Cylinders, measuring cups and spoons
•Laboratory pipettes (0.2 ml and 1 ml)
•Filtering material (tightly woven cloth or paper coffee filters)
•Mortar and pestle (glass, porcelain, bronze, wood) or spice grinder (as replacement for servants!)
•Notebook for keeping notes (electronic or traditional)

Suppliers of aromatics
Store all ingredients in tightly closed containers.
Some raw resins should be kept in freezer to prevent mold growth (raw pine resin) and help with aliquoting (like labdanum resin).

This list is probably very subjective. I will be adding new places as I test them and can report my level of satisfaction. If anyone can recommend more good sources for aromatics, please comment on this post. Thank you!

https://www.youherbit.com/product-category/ingredients/resins-incenses/

https://www.etsy.com/shop/GIFTfromNATURE

https://www.etsy.com/shop/SchmerbalsHerbals

https://plumdragonherbs.com/?fbclid=IwAR3uW3xPcnBMJ-Ln39rjUnu2JbC_Kdx6pW57gfo4T7fMXeBC4mbt9xcm_Js

https://www.edenbotanicals.com/?fbclid=IwAR0yBz1ZAobySigYeB8u7tl2dF2Yozf5dKovZOLYkmmmgOks535Wy1IoAXA

https://hermitageoils.com/?fbclid=IwAR2HPxxrrent6HezQqeeR6JmyNdAHXTnml8b2G2ZqFBPbx9yeUHzEU5_Pl0

https://ameenroma.com/

https://www.starwest-botanicals.com/?fbclid=IwAR31mtUjaa6IQK0FklcBdpQ2qSWrk8adejfWWn2HLwyx3OruIjcncRSnrZs

https://www.herbco.com/?fbclid=IwAR3fOuJHVqISGqfwTdSDJ-opz8aNqhrS6KZpBfQAi6FzOBHS3TzexLMpS44

https://www.pennherb.com/

https://shop.perfumersapprentice.com/

http://www.scents-of-earth.com/info.html?fbclid=IwAR31mtUjaa6IQK0FklcBdpQ2qSWrk8adejfWWn2HLwyx3OruIjcncRSnrZs

•Your local herbal stores 

•And own garden (if you have access to one)

Historical Perfumery in the West. How To Be Like Empress Zoe

Supplementary material for the class taught on April 13th 2020 as part of online activities within SCA Virtual Classroom and Artisan Display group on Facebook.

The history of perfumery covers over 6000 years so I decided to divide the class into several blocks. This second part is dedicated to Eastern Empire (Byzantium).

Fragrance use

•Religious ceremonies

–blessing of oil

–the perfumed scent of holiness

•Court ceremonies (procession, audiences, the augousta’s wedding night bath ritual, emperor’s bath, gifts to officials and foreign envoys)

–garlands of roses, laurel, myrtle, rosemary, marjoram, two apples and cinnamon stick gifted to highest officials on Holy Thursday of Easter, myrrh (incense for emperor’s bath)

–wild vine and rosewater mentioned when receiving ‘Saracens’ (envoys from the Muslim states)

–for military campaign, antidotes, ready incense and unguents, aromatics: mastic, frankincense,  first and second grade of cinnamon, musk, ambergris, wood and oil of agarwood, saffron, cane sugar

•Fumigation of enclosed spaces (air purification)

–perfumed oils were also used for lighting, especially the rose and lily ones.

•Medication (including antidotes)

•Body care and the art of seduction

*the use as  medication or for pleasure was considered as one.

Guilds and professions (10th century)
The Book of the Eparch to Leo the Wise

•Spicers (grocers)

–sold individual ingredients, used both for cooking and pharmacy •Perfumers

–could not sell simples drugs or individual aromatics

–traded in compound fragrances and dyes

•Apothecaries (manufacturers of simples)

–precursors to pharmacists

Sources for recipes

•Extant texts dedicated to perfumery or medicine

— Oribasius (4th century)

–Aëtius of Amida (late 5th century)

–Metrodora (5th-6th century)

(Byzantine deodorant recipe # 56: rose petals (Rosa centifolia), orris root (Iris x germanica), smyrna (Commiphora erythraea), myrrh (Commiphora myrrha), Malvasia wine)

–Alexander Tralles (6th century)

–Paulus Aegineta (7th century)

https://archive.org/search.php?query=creator%3A%22Paulus%2C+Aegineta%2C+625-690%22)

— Nicolaus Myrepsus (13th century)

–John the Physician (13th century)

https://brill.com/view/title/17004?language=en

Written by doctor practicing  in provincial town but bad smell and halitosis were still an issue)

(122. For smelling armpits: Grind a liquid astringent with myrrh, mix it with wine and apply to the armpits. Do this when there is smell. 2 Grind litharge, myrrh and cardamom, mix it with good wine and apply to the armpits)

•Extant samples

–catalog of organic plant material from excavations

•Period literary sources which discuss scents use in general

–these are not recipes but they give enough base information to facilitate archaeological experimental reconstruction

Fragrance types

•Scented oils and ointments

–mastic, rose, dill, quince, lily, saffron, marjoram…

— similar recipes to the ones from ancient Greece and Rome

•Oenantharia

–infusions of aromatics in wine

•Suffimenta

–compound incense, bound with wine and/or honey, also used as ingredient in antidotes

•Masuaphium (Masucha)

–type of incense cakes bound with wine and tragacanth gum from Astragalus

•Cyphi

–antidotes (though often burnt as incense to increase body strength)

•Distilled flower or herb waters with musk and camphor (especially after 9th -10th century, when the influence of the early Arabic pharmaceutical technology started)

Молли / CC BY-SA

Glass alembic for distilling perfume. Early Byzantine period (ca. 6th-7th c. A.D.). Unknown provenance. Archaeological Museum, Nicosia, Cyprus

Aromatics from Byzantium

•Basil, rosemary, marjoram, savory, sage,  coriander, cumin, dill, fenugreek, mint, costmary, borage, myrtle, laurel bay, melilot, wild thyme (serpyllum), periwinkle (Vinca major), poppy, sweet flag, nut grass, asarabaca (Asarum europeum – nefrotoxic), birthwort (Aristolochiaclematitis – nefrotoxic), hyssop, rue (hepatotoxic), wormwood (toxic).

•Crocus (saffron), roses, lily, iris, chrysanthemum, narcissus, meadowsweet, violets, hyacinth, carnations.

•Peony, blue lotus, oleander (toxic) and orchid (all naturalized).

•Grapes (wine and raisins), olives, apples, almonds (bitter almond – toxic), figs, citrons, quinces, cherries and  peaches (both for resin), pomegranates, lemons, oranges, privet.

•Cedar, fir, cypress, savin (toxic), Pistacia trees (for terebinth and mastic), juniper,  ivy (for resin), tamarisk, wild poplar, oak (gall oak and oak bark), pine (pine nuts and bark), chaste tree.

•Sweetgum, styrax (Styrax officinalis), labdanum, balsam (?), colchicum (autumn crocus – nefrotoxic, hepatoxic, hallucinations), branched asphodel (Asphodelus ramosus – nefrotoxic and hepatoxic), scammony, southernwood.

•Honey, bee glue (propolis), beeswax.

*Empress Zoe (11th century) was accused of getting rid of her two husbands. Prolonged serving of wine flavored with perfumes was enough to cause death due to kidneys and liver failure.

Aromatic substances imported from the East and the West

•Costus, valerian, Indian nard, Indian valerian, Celtic nard, galangal, cinnamon, cassia, black and green cardamom, long pepper, cubeb, betel nuts (Areca catechu), cassamum (plai), ginger, zedoary, turmeric, pepper (black and white).

•Bdellium, frankincense, myrrh, Smyrna, camphor, galbanum, gum ammoniac.

•Sow bread (cyclamen), Arabian and royal jasmine.

•White and red sandalwood, agarwood (especially after 9th-10th century), Indian aloes (Aetoxylon sympetalum).

•Deer musk, civet, castoreum, ambergris, onycha (from Red Sea and from India, also use of local opercula from the snails producing the Tyrian purple dye).

•Oak moss, camel grass, rosewood (Dalbergia sissoo), sweet cane, elecampane, cassia fistula, cloves, black myrobalan (Terminalia chebula).

•Tragacanth gum from Astragalus, gum Arabic.

*Independent books or chapters in medical texts discussed replacements for ingredients not available at any given time. It later inspired similar works within Arabian medicine.

Opercula from the Red Sea

Preparing onycha (onyx) or the operculafrom marine snails

–soaking overnight in wine vinegar

–cooking in white vinegar

–washing with water and brush

–burning (in an old frying pan)

–grounding to powder

–sieving.

Oil of Indian nard in sesame oil (cold maceration). Byzantine texts mentioned this oil as ingredient  in compound  oils and ointments.


Examples of perfumery containers

https://www.clevelandart.org/art/1946.261#

https://www.clevelandart.org/art/1946.427

https://art.thewalters.org/detail/28991/circular-pyxis/

https://www.artic.edu/artworks/67471/cosmetic-jar

https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/collections/object/287382?position=0

Selected bibliography

Al-Helabi, Abdulaziz, Dimitrios G. Letsios, Moshalleh Al-Moraekhi, and Abdullah Al-Abduljabbar, eds. 2012. Arabia, Greece and Byzantium. Cultural Contacts in Ancient and Medieval Times: Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Historical Relations between Arabia, the Greek and Byzantine World (5th Century BC – 10th Century AD) Riyadh, 6-10 December, 2010. Vol. 2. Riyadh: King Saud University.

Bodin, Helena, and Ragnar Hedlund. 2013. Byzantine Gardens and beyond. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Studia Byzantina Upsaliensia, 13. Uppsala.

Dalby, Andrew. 2003. Flavours of Byzantium. Prospect.

Dalby, Andrew, Scholasticus. Cassianus Bassus, and Emperor of the East Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. 2011. Geoponika: Farm Work: A Modern Translation of the Roman and Byzantine Farming Handbook. Prospect Books.

Lafont, Olivier. 2005. “Le Livre Du Préfet de Léon Le Sage: Intérêt Pour l’histoire de La Pharmacie et Des Médicaments .” Revue d’Histoire de La Pharmacie  346: 247–56. https://www.persee.fr/doc/pharm_0035-2349_2005_num_93_346_5804.

Moffatt, Anne, and Maxeme Tall, eds. 2018. Constantine Porphyrogennetos – The Book of Ceremonies. Constantine Porphyrogennetos – The Book of Ceremonies. BRILL. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004344921.

Panas, Marios, Effie Poulakou-Rebelakou, Nicoalos Kalfakis, and Dimitrios Vassilopoulos. 2012. “The Byzantine Empress Zoe Porphyrogenita and the Quest for Eternal Youth.” Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology 11 (3): 245–48. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-2165.2012.00629.x.

Pointer, Sally. 2005. The artifice of beauty: a history and practical guide to perfumes and cosmetics, Stroud: Sutton.

Zipser, Barbara. 2009.  John the Physician’s Therapeutics .  John the Physician’s Therapeutics . Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004177239.i-378.

The survey of perfume and incense

Travel in time and place starts here…

Metrodora’s incense recipe # 58 (5th-6th century CE manuscript)

Metrodora’s incense recipe # 57 version 1 (5th – 6th century CE manuscript)

Metrodora’s recipe # 58 (5th-6th century CE manuscript) – scented oil version

Metrodora’s recipe # 57 version 1 (5th-6th century CE manuscript)

Metrodora’s recipe # 57 version 1.2 (5th-6th century CE manuscript)

Oenantharium called Mesopotamenum, Paulus Aegineta, 7th century CE

Oenantharium, Paulus Aegineta, 7th century CE

This is oenantharium (or infusion of aromatics in wine) in making.
It takes 40 days for the infusion to be ready.
The Paulus Aegineta’s text from mid 7th century described oenantharia as scented wines used solely for their fragrance. They were used to wash the body, the household objects like furniture and even sprinkled on the flooring.

Suffimentum rosatum, Paulus Aegineta, 7th century CE

Suffimentum liliaceum, Paulus Aegineta, 7th century CE

*Myrtle is used here as replacement for opobalsamum/balsam (Commiphora opobalsamum) which is not available commercially. From Paulus Aegineta’s work.

Suffimentum rosatum – drying disks.
Suffimentum is both an incense and an ingredient for making antidote
s.

I hope you have enjoyed the journey!

For more information, please visit my website at www.kasiagromek.com

Or contact me by email at murcielago53@hotmail.com

An ongoing perfumery course on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/groups/807436473052978/

For perfume samples or customized products: https://www.etsy.com/shop/TreasuresofTrecio?ref=simple-shop-header-name&listing_id=655226216

Historical Perfumery in the West. Late Medieval And Renaissance Recipes

Supplementary material for the class taught on April 17th 2020 as part of online activities within SCA Virtual Classroom and Artisan Display group on Facebook.

The history of perfumery covers over 6000 years so I decided to divide the class into several blocks. This part is dedicated to the western world and covers High Medieval period and Renaissance.

General use – fragrances are still considered as both luxury item and as medication.

•Religious ceremonies (oils, incense)

–individual saints are associated with oils curing/preventing disease

•Fumigation of enclosed spaces (air purification)

•Medication (including antidotes)

•Body and clothing scenting

  1. Added to laundry
  2. Pomanders
  3. Storage of linens
  4. Perfumed gloves.

•Art of seduction

–spiced wine and food.

Sources for recipes – extant texts dedicated to perfumery (book of secrets) or medicine (materia medica)

Full texts of Renaissance beauty recipe books

1. Notandissimi secreti de l’arte profumatoria by Giovanventura Rosetti

https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_-LTT7FQZNSIC

2. I secreti de la signora Isabella Cortese : ne’qvali si contengono cose minerali, medicinali, arteficiose, & alchimiche, & molte de l’arte profumatoria, appartenenti a ogni gran signora : con altri bellissimi secreti aggiunti by Cortese, Isabella

https://archive.org/details/isecretidelasign00cort

3. Manual de mugeres en el qual se contienen muchas y diversas reçeutas muy buenas.

http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/01371074322363763092257/p0000001.htm#PagFin

http://www.larsdatter.com/manual.htm (English translation though the names of ingredients have to be carefully checked)

4. Liébaut / Liébault, Jean. Trois Livres de l’embellissement et ornement du corps humain, pris du latin de M. Jean Liebaut… et faict François. A Paris, chez Jacques Du Puys, 1582.

http://www.biusante.parisdescartes.fr/histoire/medica/resultats/index.php?do=livre&cote=88095

5. Gli ornamenti delle Donne. Marinello, Giovanni. 1574. Gli Ornamenti Delle Donne. Venice.

https://archive.org/details/McGillLibrary-rbsc_gli-ornamenti-delle-donne_TP983M42M31574-15978/page/n5/mode/2up

6. Ruscelli, Girolamo, and William Ward. 1595. The Secrets of the Reverend Maister Alexis of Piemont: Containing Excellent Remedies against Diverse Diseases, Wounds, and Other Accidents, with the Maner to Make Distillations, Parfumes, Confitures, Dying, Colours, Fusions, and Meltings. London.

https://archive.org/details/secretsofreveren00rusc/page/n4/mode/2up.

7. Partridge, John, and Johnna Holloway. 2010. The Treasurie of Commodious Conceits,  & Hidden Secrets, and May Be Called, The Huswiues Closet, of Healthfull Prouision. 1573. http://eebo.chadwyck.com/about/about.htm#chron

http://www.medievalcookery.com/notes/treasurie.pdf

Links to other texts (not available for free download)

1. Delightes for ladies to adorn their persons, tables, closets, and distillatories: with beauties, banquets, perfumes and Waters. (1608) by Hugh Plat

2. Ricette d’amore e di bellezza di Caterina Sforza, signora di Imola e di Forlì

3. Ricettario galante del principio del secolo XVI by Olindo Guerrini

4. Ricettarrio fiorentino 1498 (and later version of the Ricettario). Crocetti, Luigi, ed. 1968. Ricettario Fiorentino, 1498. Collana di. Biblioteca Nazional Centrale.

5. Magistro Gasparino da Venezia, and Carlo Castellani. 1959. Secreti Medicinali Di Magistro Guasparino Da Vienexia: Andidotario Inedito Del XIV-XV Secolo. Athenaeum Cremonense.

https://books.google.com/books/about/Secreti_medicinali_di_magistro_Guasparin.html?id=siVPQwAACAAJ.

Fragrance types

•Scented oils and ointments

•Distilled waters

  • Homemade distilled rose water made from soured dried petals (Water, soured rose petals (Rosa centifolia).
  • Homemade rose water (distilled) (Water, red rose petals (Rosa gallica), benzoin styrax (Styrax benzoides)).

•Alcohol based perfumes (distilled and infusions)

•Incense

•Powders (like ciprino – powder of Cyprus)

*Distillation apparatus made of glass, lead, pewter and pottery. Sometimes choice of distilling or not is left to the choice of person using the recipe “distill or not, as you like.”

Aromatics in use

•Basil, pellitory (Spanish chamomile),  Roman and German chamomile,  rosemary, marjoram, savory, sage,  coriander, mint, costmary, borage, myrtle, laurel bay, melilot, wild thyme (serpyllum), sweet flag, nut grass, asarabaca (Asarum europium), hyssop, rue, Syrian rue, wormwood, pennyroyal, winter savory, rhodiola.

•Roses and rosehip, lavender, elderflowers, crocus (saffron), roses, lily, iris, meadowsweet, violets, yarrow, broom, carnations.

•Grapes (wine and raisins), citrons, quinces, pomegranates, lemons, oranges.

•Cedar, fir, cypress, savin, Pistacia trees (for terebinth and mastic), juniper, ivy (for resin), oak (gall oak and oak bark), pine (pine nuts and bark), chaste tree, willow charcoal (used to make fragrant carbone di salice or carbone dulce).

•Sweetgum, styrax (Styrax officinalis), labdanum, balsam (?), scammony, southernwood.

•Honey, bee glue (propolis), beeswax.

•Almond oil, laurel bay berry oil, olive oil.

*Balsam of Gilead appeared regularly in materia medica recipes and in some books of secret. Since balsam was not widely cultivated (the last orchard was in Alexandria and seemed to stop operating by 12th century), the question remains what was traded and sold under the name ‘balsam.’

Aromatic substances –  imported

•Costus, valerian, Indian nard, Indian valerian, galangal, cinnamon, cassia, black and green cardamom, long pepper, cubeb, betel nuts (Areca catechu), cassamum (plai), ginger, zedoary, turmeric, lemongrass, pepper (black and white), grains of paradise, nutmeg, mace.

•Bdellium, frankincense, myrrh, Smyrna, Borneol camphor, galbanum, gum ammoniac, amber resin (succinum), Siam benzoin, styrax benzoin.

•Arabian and royal jasmine.

White and red sandalwood, agarwood.

Deer musk, civet, castoreum, ambergris.

•Oak moss, camel grass, rosewood (Dalbergia sissoo), sweet cane sugar, elecampane, cassia fistula, cloves, black myrobalan (Terminalia chebula).

•Tragacanth gum from Astragalus, gum Arabic.

*I use real civet tincture, castoreum macerate in sandalwood oil, muskrat tincture and musk mallow seeds (musk replacement), Ambergris essence (IFF). In US, even possession of raw ambergris is prohibited (prison sentence and/or fine).

Selected bibiography

Messinis, Anna, and F. (Frederick) Lauritzen. 2017. The History of Perfume in Venice. Lineadacqua

Orta, Garcia. 1913. Colloquies on the Simples and Drugs of India. Edited by Clements Markham. London: Henry Sotheran and Company. https://archive.org/details/colloquiesonsimp00orta/page/n8/mode/2up.

Pointer, Sally. 2005. The Artifice of Beauty: A History and Practical Guide to Perfumes and Cosmetics. Sutton.

Treccani, Elisa., and Michelangelo. Zaccarello. 2012. Recipe …: Pratiche Mediche, Cosmetiche e Culinarie Attraverso i Testi (Secoli XIV-XVI). Cierre grafica

The survey of perfume and incense

Travel in time and place starts here…

Late 14th century Italy

Magistro Guasparino’s recipe # 155

Magistro Guasparino’s recipe # 138

Ricettario fiorentino  1498

Olio nardino cioe di spigonardi di Mesue et usasi (recipe copied/inspired by Arabic text of Mesue or Yuhanna ibn Masawaih)

Olio di Gugliemo Piacentino il quale si usa in lugo di balsamo (the way to replace true balsam oil)

16th century Italian recipes

Secreti di Isabella Cortese (16th century Italy) recipe # 187 – ‘’Perfect royal oil’’

Perfumed water from 16th century Venice (Giovanventura Rossetti, Notandissimi secreti de l’arte profumatoria, 1555)

Extant scent bottle

16th century French recipes

Monsieur Liebaut recipe from page 379 ‘’On beautification of human body’’ (France, 2nd half of 16th century), to be used as 1:12 dilution in rose water

Monsieur Liebaut recipe from page 381 (middle one) from ‘’On beautification of human body’’ (France, 2nd half of 16th century)

Monsieur Liebaut recipe from page 380 (lower recipe) from ‘’On beautification of human body’’ (France, 2nd half of 16th century)

Monsieur Liebaut recipe from page 381 (‘lower recipe’) from ‘’On beautification of human body’’ (France, 2nd half of 16th century)

Monsieur Liebaut recipe from page 379 (‘lower recipe’) from ‘’On beautification of human body’’ (France, 2nd half of 16th century) – distilled

Monsieur Liebaut damask (musk) water recipe from page 379 (‘top recipe’) from ‘’On beautification of human body’’ (France, 2nd half of 16th century) – distilled

Monsieur Liebaut damask (musk) water recipe from page 379 (‘top recipe’) from ‘’On beautification of human body’’ (France, 2nd half of 16th century) – cooked

Late 16th century English recipes

Hugo Platt’s ‘’Rosa solis’’ or ‘’Aqua Solis” (recipe #6 in Distillation chapter) (early 17th century, 1604)

Hugo Platt’s ‘’Stevens Aqua Composita” (recipe #8D in Distillation chapter) (early 17th century, 1604)

My pomander replicas.
Replica based on pomander from Germany, dated to ~1580.
Replica based on pomander from Germany, dated to ~1600.

Italian incense

Incense shaped like small birds from 16th century Venice (I secreti de la signora Isabella Cortese: ne’qvali si contengono cose minerali, medicinali, arteficiose, & alchimiche, & molte de l’arte profumatoria, appartenenti a ogni gran signora: con altri bellissimi secreti aggiunti by Cortese, Isabella, 1565)

Uccelletti – incense shaped like ”ugly ducks” instead of small birds.

I hope you have enjoyed the journey!

For more information, please visit my website at www.kasiagromek.com

Or contact me by email at murcielago53@hotmail.com

An ongoing perfumery course on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/groups/807436473052978/

For perfume samples or customized products: https://www.etsy.com/shop/TreasuresofTrecio?ref=simple-shop-header-name&listing_id=655226216

Historical Perfumery in the West. From The Bronze Age To Classical Antiquity

Supplementary material for the class taught on April 3rd 2020 as part of online activities within SCA Virtual Classroom and Artisan Display group on Facebook.

The history of perfumery covers over 6000 years so I decided to divide the class into several blocks. The part is dedicated to the western world, narrowly defined as the Mediterranean Sea region (including Egypt) and the Palestine (defined as province of Rome) from the Bronze Age to the Ancient Rome times. I feel that the region of the ancient Fertile Crescent is worthy of its own class which will be held on April 24th 2020.

Introduction to perfumery

•In the beginning, the perfumery was under tight control of rulers and priests. “Democratization” of perfume usage happened during the Hellenistic period (in Greece) and Late Republic (in Rome).

•Cyprus seems to be an exception since the of use of perfumes oils and other fragrances was spread across the population (and not restricted to the elites).

•Around 4-5th century CE, independent warehouses, shops and stores were set up. Very often stores provided customized containers for clients looking for luxury goods.

•Adulterated and second grade products were sold to unsuspecting customers (and we still deal with the same issue in the 21st century CE).

•Trade both from the West to the East and from the East to the West developed in the 3rd millennium BCE.

•Wrecks of ships (like Uluburun), extant trade documents  and excavated containers show the extent of trade (we source the ingredients from the same places even today).

•The Cyprus, Crete, Arabian Peninsula, India, China, Persia, Egypt were sources of raw ingredients or ready products (including glass).

Perfume ingredients – methods of processing aromatics

•The most common perfumes of Bronze Age and antiquity were made in form of oil (plant-derived or animal grease) infused with fragrant materials like resins, spices, flowers and seeds.

3 major techniques for extracting the aroma from any plant material

Pressing involved crushing the aromatic material, very often in a press and then recovering the aromatic liquid by twisting them from a cloth bundle. This was one of the oldest methods and the most inefficient in expelling the aromatic ingredients.

Cold steeping or enfleurage was applied mostly to the delicate flowers. The petals were spread on layer of animal fat and then placed between two boards in order to recover the aromatized fat after a few days of exposure.

The hot steeping was the most popular method throughout antiquity. The oil was pre-treated by addition of astringent substances like cardamom, coriander seeds  or calamus (sweet flag) root mixed with wine or water (stypsis). Afterwards the oil was heated either

–Directly on fire (Assyria, Egypt)

–In the hot ashes (Aegean)

–In a double boiler (bain-marie) (late Hellenistic Greece and ancient Rome from Late Republic period).

Perfume ingredients

•The main oils used in antiquity for perfumery:

  • olive oil from unripe olives (omphacium)
  • ben (moringa) oil
  • sweet and bitter almond oil
  • balanos oil
  • sesame oil

•The main animal fats used for perfumery:

  • lard
  • beef suet and marrow
  • fat from goose, duck, goat, donkey
  • beeswax

Perfumes were very often dyed with:

  • madder extract
  • alkanet extract
  • saffron

–After the process was finished, the infused oil was strained, filtered and transferred to containers, preferably made of stone, lead or glass. Especially alabaster containers were recommended as they kept the perfumes cool (both air and heat are the biggest enemies of perfumes).

–Honey was used to cover the interior of perfume bottle (as preservative).

Perfume ingredients – Predynastic Egypt (4000-3000 BCE)

  • Bitumen
  • Beeswax
  • Animal fats
  • Pistacia sp. resins
  • Myrrh
  • Amber resin (succinum)
  • Pine, cedar and juniper wood and resins
  • Sweetgum wood and resin (Liquidambar orientalis)

Source:

Hazel, Judith, and Seath Burrows. 2010. “A Non-Destructive Analytical Study of Predynastic Period Unguents from Ancient Egypt.” Manchester: University of Manchester.

Perfume ingredients – Dynastic Egypt (3000-100 BCE)

  • Plant oils: Balanos oil, almond oil (imported), olive oil (imported before New Kingdom), ben oil (imported)
  • Animal fats (lard, beef tallow, goose, duck)
  • Native/naturalized plants: sweet marjoram, juniper, myrtle, rose, henna, white lily, lotus (Nymphea caerulea), cyperus (sedges)
  • Pistacia sp. resins (imported)
  • Myrrh and frankincense
  • Imported plants: sweet flag, saffron, cassia, cinnamon, alkanet, aspalathos, camel grass, green cardamom, Indian nard.
  • Pine, cedar and  fir wood and resins
  • Galbanum, labdanum and sweetgum resin (Liquidambar orientalis) (all imported)

Source:

Byl, Sheila Ann. 2012. “The Essence and Use of Perfume in Ancient Egypt.” University of South Africa. https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Essence_and_Use_of_Perfume_in_Ancien.html?id=SZXZoAEACAAJ.

Replica of the cosmetic spoon from the Eighteenth Dynasty, Old Kingdom, reign of Amenhotep III, now in the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, made from ivory and ebony, has the ‘swimming girl’ propelling a container in the form of a red lotus flower (with a hinged lid).

Perfume ingredients –  Aegean Sea (Bronze Age)

  • Olive oil, almond oil, sesame and safflower oils (imported)
  • Wine, wool, honey
  • Coriander, cyperus (sedge), iris
  • Rose, linden flowers, carnation flowers, wormwood,
  • Green cardamom, clary sage, mint, fenugreek,
  • Myrrh (?), cinnamon, anise, cumin, labdanum, oak moss, sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis)

Source:

Foster, Ellen Douglas Hamill. 1974. “The Manufacture and Trade of Mycenaean Perfumed Oil (1995 Edition) | Open Library.” Duke University. https://openlibrary.org/books/OL16169635M/The_manufacture_and_trade_of_Mycenaean_perfumed_oil.

Tzedakis, Yannis., Holley. Martlew, Greece. Hypourgeio Politismou., and Ill.) Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago. 2001. Archaeology Meets Science : Minoans and Mycenaeans, Flavors of Their Time : Museum of Science and Industry, November-December 2001. Athens: Kapon Editions.

Perfume ingredients – Hellenistic Greece and ancient Rome

  • Rose petals, wild wine flowers, Egyptian blue lotus flowers, meadowsweet, Arabian and royal jasmine, saffron, white lily, narcissus, broom, carnation flower.
  • Myrrh, frankincense, labdanum, balsam of Gilead, oppoponax, galbanum, Aleppo pine resin, styrax, sweetgum, Siam benzoin, Burgundy spruce resin, mastic resin, terebinth resin.
  • Sweet flag, nut grass, mint, camel grass, Indian bay leaf, violet leaf, thyme, wild thyme (serpyllum), cypress, fenugreek, horsemint, marjoram, white wormwood, wormwood, myrtle, laurel berries, sweet basil.
  • Cardamom, black cardamom, cinnamon, cassia, nutmeg, juniper berries, oakmoss.
  • Costus, patrinia, valerian, Indian nard, Indian valerian, Celtic nard, galangal.

*The redaction of recipes is complicated by the ambiguity of the aromatics’ names. Example: 4 versions of nardinon muron since the main ingredient was identified as at least 4 different plants.

*Agarwood (oud) was known. Dioscorides mentioned that it ‘sweetens breath, powdered - perfumes body and could be burnt instead of frankincense.’ Though I have not really seen it in use until 8th century (Eastern Empire). White sandalwood was imported to Egypt but it doesn’t seem to be known in the Roman world (unless one of the ‘teak from India’ is really sandalwood). Sandalwood was used by the ‘Persians’ and it is possible that some of the exotic scents were imported to Rome (that’s why it is included in ‘My myrrh, my cinnamon’ fragrance).
*Camphor was used in India and Far East Asia both as pure aromatic and in form of highly camphorous plants. In the West, plants like white wormwood and common wormwood were used as camphor source. Pure camphor was used in medicine and perfumery in the West by mid-8th century.

Animal ingredients:

  • Onycha (opercula of marine snails) – used as fixative in perfumes and incense
  • Castoreum (beaver) – known as medicinal material only, not in fragrances
  • Musk (deer) – first mentioned in Byzantine medical text from late 5th  century, in late 7th century Paulus Aegineta mentioned that it was used in female perfumes as aphrodisiac to arouse sexual partners
  • Ambergris – first mentioned in 7-8th century Byzantine text of Paulus Aegineta (for medicinal use)
  • Civet – used in India from 1st century CE or earlier, made it to Europe probably around  8-9th century
*Many internet sources (including unfortunately museum websites) claim that classical Greeks (Hellenistic period) and ancient Romans used a lot of musk, civet and ambergris. These aromatics were used in the Far East, so it is possible that a ready fragrance or incense made it to Greece or Rome as exotica. But there are no local recipes in the West until  late 7th to early 8th century.

Sources:

Dioscorides Pedanius, of Anazarbos., Tess Anne. Osbaldeston, and Robert P. Wood. 2000. De Materia Medica : Being an Herbal with Many Other Medicinal Materials : Written in Greek in the First Century of the Common Era : A New Indexed Version in Modern English. Johannesburg: IBIDIS. https://www.worldcat.org/title/dioscorides-de-materia-medica-being-an-herbal-with-many-other-medicinal-materials/oclc/59267898&referer=brief_results.

Duke, James A., and Peggy-Ann K. Duke. 2008. Duke’s Handbook of Medicinal Plants of the Bible. Boca Raton  FL: CRC Press. https://www.worldcat.org/title/dukes-handbook-of-medicinal-herbs-of-the-bible/oclc/226087992&referer=brief_results.

Pliny, the Elder., and Harris Rackham. 1938. Natural History. Historia Naturalis : In Ten Volumes. 4, Libri XII – XVI (Loeb). The Loeb C. Cambridge Mass. [u.a.]: Harvard University Press. https://www.worldcat.org/title/historia-naturalis-in-ten-volumes-4-libri-xii-xvi/oclc/916660297&referer=brief_results.

Theophrastus., 372-287, and Arthur Hort. 1916. Enquiry into Plants, and Minor Works on Odours and Weather Signs. Volume II. The Loeb C. [Place of publication not identified]: Harvard University Press. https://www.worldcat.org/title/enquiry-into-plants-and-minor-works-on-odours-and-weather-signs-vol-ii/oclc/852018037&referer=brief_results.

Perfume – basic forms

Perfumes  existed in 3 different form:

•Oils

--the solid matter left after the perfume making process was called magma and was re-used to make a second grade perfumes or ground to be used for scented sachets or scenting clothing and bedding 

•Unguents

–very often made with animal fat and beeswax

•Powders (diapasmata)

–the most famous is the scented  pink powder from Cyprus which was imported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom period

–scented with oakmoss and other aromatics and dyed with expensive imported Indian madder.

Incense

•Early incense was composed of single aromatics (herbs or wood chips) thrown into fire.

•Egyptians were probably first to introduce the compound incense like kyphi.

•By the 4-5th century CE, incense mixes in the West were compounded of several ground ingredients, moistened with fragrant wine and held together in form of flat cakes with honey. The ingredient composition suggest some influence of Indian perfumery, as both methods and raw ingredients were  disseminated through trade.

Sources for recipes

•Extant texts dedicated to perfumery or medicine

–Theophrastus

–Dioscorides

–Pliny the Elder

–Athenaeus of Naucratis

–Linear B script writings

–Egyptian extant texts preserved on papyrus

•Extant samples

–analysis results published in scientific journals (I set up notifications in Google Scholar for some of my searches)

–catalogs of organic plant material from excavations

–public domain database http://openarchem.org/ (it is temporarily down)

•Period literary sources which discuss scents use in general

–these are not recipes but they give enough base information to facilitate archaeological experimental reconstruction.

Selected bibliography

Manniche, Lise. 1999. Sacred luxuries: Fragrance, Aromatherapy, and Cosmetics in Ancient Egypt. 1st publ. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press (excellent book, Egyptian perfumes were a rage in ancient Greece and Rome).

Pointer, Sally. 2005. The artifice of beauty: a history and practical guide to perfumes and cosmetics, Stroud: Sutton.

Stewart, Susan M. 2007. Cosmetics & perfumes in the Roman world. Gloucestershire: Tempus.

The survey of perfume and incense: Travel in time and place starts here…

Cypriot powder (Bronze Age Aegean) (Belgiorno, Maria Rosaria. 2007. Mavrorachi : Il Profumo Di Afrodite e Il Mistero Della Dea Senza Volto : Dal 2000 a.C. Ad Oggi Quattromila Anni Di Profumo. Roma: Gangemi. https://www.worldcat.org/title/mavrorachi-il-profumo-di-afrodite-e-il-mistero-della-dea-senza-volto-dal-2000-ac-ad-oggi-quattromila-anni-di-profumo-mostra-florence-officina-profumo-farmaceutica-santa-maria-novella-17-marzo-13-aprile-2008/oclc/922704079&referer=brief_results).

Carnations and anise scented Middle Minoan (based on analysis of sample from pottery), ~ 1600 BCE.

Perfume based on extant sample from Mochlos (extant sample found in an amphora at Mochlos, Crete, dated to ~1500 BCE (Late Minoan IB)).

Rose-scented perfume from Pylos, Middle Bronze Age (based on recipes from linear script B tablets) v.1.2. (Shelmerdine, C. W. (1985) The perfume industry of Mycenaean Pylos. Göteborg: P. Åströms Förlag. Available at: https://www.worldcat.org/title/perfume-industry-of-mycenaean-pylos/oclc/1014841079&referer=brief_results (Accessed: 8 November 2018).

Late Minoan from Tourloti (based on analysis of sample from pottery) (Koh, Andrew J, and Kathleen J Birney. 2017. “ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND CULTURAL CONTINUITY: THE PENN MUSEUM LATE MINOAN IIIC STIRRUP JAR FROM TOURLOTIt.”  Mediterranean Archaeology & Archaeometry 17 (2): 19–33. http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=be7f4de4-992c-4918-b0a3-32ae27c23c21%40sessionmgr4008&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPWlwLHVpZCZzaXRlPWVob3N0LWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3D%3D#AN=126510395&db=aph).

Etruscan ointment from Chiusi (based on analysis of extant ointment) (Colombini, M. et al. (2009) ‘An Etruscan ointment from Chiusi (Tuscany, Italy): its chemical characterization’, Journal of Archaeological Science, 36(7), pp. 1488–1495).

Roman pottery unguentaria. A, Approximate chronology of ceramic unguentaria present in Milwaukee Public Museum collection (Mortensen 2014) and B, the replica that forms part of my collection. Because it is unglazed inside, it would have been covered with beeswax before actual use.

Susinum (Dioscorides recipe).

Iasmelaion (Dioscorides recipe).

Telinon (fenugreek oil made according to the Dioscorides recipe).

Krocinon (saffron perfume made according to the Dioscorides recipe).

Metopion (classic Egyptian perfume, based on Dioscorides recipe).

Nardinon muron in 4 versions (Dioscorides).

The King of Parthia’s perfume version 1 (according to recipe in Pliny the Elder’s Natural History).

King of Parthia’s version 2.1 (literary sources on aromatics used in Parthian and Sasanian Empire) (Monchi-Zadeh, D. (1982) ‘Xusrōv i Kavātān ut Rētak’, in Monumentum Georg Morgenstierne II (ActaIranica 22), pp. 47–91).

‘My myrrh, my cinnamon’ Roman perfume (name is based on perfume mentioned in literary sources, but no recipe survived so the ingredients are chosen from works of Pliny and Dioscorides).

Late Gallo-Roman perfume in 2 versions (based on one of the earliest attempts to analyze an extant sample (Reutter de Rosemont, L. (1921) ‘Analysis of a remains in a Gallo-Roman vase’, Schweiz Apoth. Zig (Schweizerische Apotheker-Zeitung), 59, pp. 233–235).

Persian ‘Intoxicating violets’ v.1.2 (Grami, B. (2013) ‘Perfumery Plant Materials As Reflected In Early Persian Poetry’,  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 23(1), pp. 39–52. Available at: https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/docview/1327720117?rfr_id=info%3Axri%2Fsid%3Aprimo (Accessed: 21 July 2017).

Additional information

For more information, please contact me by email at murcielago53@hotmail.com

An ongoing perfumery course on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/groups/807436473052978/

For perfume samples or customized products: https://www.etsy.com/shop/TreasuresofTrecio?ref=simple-shop-header-name&listing_id=655226216

Redaction of perfume from ‘Trois Livres de l’embellissement et ornement du corps humain’ by Jean Liébault from edition printed in Paris in 1582.


This is a fragment of the original work (scan made available by  Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire de Médecine (Paris). Adresse permanente : http://www.bium.univ-paris5.fr/histmed/medica/cote?88095).

The original recipe found on page 381 can be translated as:

Take cloves, cassia and yellow sandalwood, each 5 drachms, lavender flowers – 2 handfuls, 5 drachms of Siam benzoin, 3 ounces of Malvasia wine, the same of the aqua vitae and 4 pounds of rose water.  Mix all in a class bottle and expose to sun for a whole month or as long it is needed to bake a bread.  After infused, distilled in bain marie. Add to the distilled fragrant water half drachm of musk and expose to sun for 10 days.

This redaction I am proposing below is the version without distillation where the final product has around 40% alcohol content which means it does not need to be stored in fridge to preserve the freshness and prevent spoilage.

I start with making rose water by infusion. I mix dried ¾ cup of each dried petals of damask rose (Rosa damascena) and French rose (Rosa gallica), and infuded them overnight in 3 cups of distilled water with addition of 3 cloves (Syzygium aromaticum). Next day, I heat the petals gently in the double boiler for 45 minutes and then filter the rose water through several layers of unbleached paper coffee filters into containers cleaned with 70% grain alcohol (I am constantly out of good linen pieces for filtering hence the use of paper filters).


The rose petal infusion heating in the double boiler

I also use a modern trick of adding 10 g of food grade citric acid to preserve the color (period recipes used lemon juice to preserve color of rose petal preserves).  I store the rose water in the fridge.


The rose water ready for storing.

For a convenient batch, I take the following (as powder or crushed):

8.2 g cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)

7.2 g cassia (Cinnamomum cassia)

7.2 g Siam benzoin (Styrax tonkinensis)

7.2 g white sandalwood (here I use a darker variety from Southern India) (Santalum album)

3 g lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia)

2 g musk mallow seeds (Abelmoschus moschatus)

96 mL Everclear (98% grain alcohol)

95 mL rose water (previously made)

52 mL Malvasia (very fragrant Greek wine)

15 mL brandy (aqua vitae being really a twice distilled wine)

10 drops white sandalwood essential oil (Santalum album)

10 drops damask rose absolute (Rosa damascena)

6 drops French lavender absolute (it is impossible to buy flowers of this species) (Lavandula stoechas)

I mix everything in a 500 mL Florence flask (with round bottom), close it well and infuse for 11 days. My apartment is on the warm side so it is like balmy southern France! Every day, I mix the infusion thoroughly at least twice.


The aromatics ready to infuse.

On the last day, I heat the infusion gently in bain marie (double boiler) for 8 hours, using 2 tea lights as heat source. They allow the water to reach around 50o C, enough to release the musky-smelling macrocyclic lactone compounds (muscone) from musk mallow seeds, but not high enough to destroy the aromatics.


I forgot to take a picture of the infusion, but the set up for the gentle bain marie looks like this. The bowl has another smaller bowl built in to hold the round bottom flask (a special order made by a potter in Poland).

When the infusion cools down, I filter it through a densely woven linen cloth and several paper coffee filters.


Final filtering.

Then I add 7 drops of Tonquitone Musk Essence (IFF) and 30 drops of musk mallow seeds absolute (Abelmoschus moschatus).  I store the perfume in a dark glass boston bottle, away from light. It usually needs around 10 days for the musk tones to diffuse. The longer it matures, the scent will more mallow and pleasant.

The use of dried aromatics, including rose petals, is well documented in 16th century medical and book of secrets texts. Even Monsieur Liébaut mentioned it in a few of his recipes. Fresh rose petals were even salted in summer to preserve them for winter use.

Use of essential oils and absolutes is a modern but necessary step where availability of raw fresh ingredients is limited or non-existent.

Examples of period use for scented water include the following:
–a few drops on handkerchief, tucked underneath doublet or placed on the bosom,
–a few drops on a scrap of cloth placed in a pomander
–a dilution (in rosewater, orange water or melilot water) used to wash hands and refresh body, or added to last rinse during the wash of hair or body linens, etc.

From the history of aromatic plants: Jasmine in ancient Egypt

Arabian jasmin (Jasminum sambac ‘Maid of Orleans’) from Sayada, Tunisia.  Credits to Habib M’henni / Wikimedia Commons. Accessed on September 14th 2019    (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arabian_jasmin,_Tunisia_2010.jpg)

Jasmine in ancient Egypt

Jasmine plants were brought in abundant quantities to Egypt during the Roman period, as import from the eastern provinces (El-Shimy 2003). Its use seemed to be copied from the Persians. It is even implied in surviving texts that both the jasmine fragrance and its recipe were an import from the East (Dioscorides Pedanius, Osbaldeston, and Wood 2000).

There is single reference to jasmine (a single dried flower of jasmine sambac) found in cachette of royal mummies from 21st Dynasty at Deir el-Bahari. The identification was published in Nature in 1884 by Schweinfurth (Schweinfurth 1884; Vartavan and Arakelyan 2010).

The flower was found in the package of botanical material delivered to Natural History Museum of Milan. Most of the flower wreaths from this site ended in the storage at the Egyptian Museum in the Cairo suburb of Boulak, but I was unable to determine fate of this material. Mummies from this hideout were researched in the early 20th century and a reprint of 1912 report is available (Smith 2000).

Bibliography:

Dioscorides Pedanius, of Anazarbos., Tess Anne. Osbaldeston, and Robert P. Wood. 2000. De Materia Medica : Being an Herbal with Many Other Medicinal Materials : Written in Greek in the First Century of the Common Era : A New Indexed Version in Modern English. Johannesburg: IBIDIS. https://www.worldcat.org/title/dioscorides-de-materia-medica-being-an-herbal-with-many-other-medicinal-materials/oclc/59267898&referer=brief_results.

El-Shimy, Mohamed. 2003. “Preparation and Use of Perfumes and Perfumed Substances in Ancient Egypt.” In Molecular and Structural Archaeology: Cosmetic and Therapeutic Chemicals, edited by Georges Tsoucaris and Janusz Lipkowski, 29–50. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Schweinfurth, G. 1884. “Further Discoveries in the Flora of Ancient Egypt 1.” Nature 29 (744): 312–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/029312b0.

Smith, Grafton Elliot. 2000. The Royal Mummies. Duckworth.

Vartavan, Christian de, and Arminée Arakelyan. 2010. Codex of Ancient Egyptian Plant Remains = Codex Des Restes Végétaux de l’Égypte Ancienne.  SAIS; 2nd Revised & Enlarged edition (December 2010).

Midday dish of lamb for the dux (duke) of Trecio (modern Trezzo sull’Adda) from the early 7th century Langobard Italy

Introduction

Historical background

In 558 and 559 CE, a new calamity stroke Italy, the Langobard (Lombards) [1]. The population was still recovering from effects of Gothic Wars (the Ostrogothic invaders were freshly defeated by the Byzantine army, wide spread famine, poor harvests and afflicted by pestilence. The new wave of Germanic people (that included besides the Lombards also Bulgars, Gepids, Slavs and Saxons) moved into Italia from Pannonia where the Avars tried to settle. The king of the Lombards, Alboin, made a settlement with the khan of the Avars about returning to Pannonia if the excursion into Italia had not been successful. There were not enough Byzantine forces to protect the underpopulated regions of Po river valley and the Langobards captured Pavia in 572 CE. They formalized the relationship with the Kingdom of the Franks in 604 CE and signed a peace treaty with the Byzantines in 605. The new kingdom was called Regnum Italicum (Kingdom of Italy). There were also two semi-independent duchies of Benevento and Spoleto. The Regnum Italicum survived until 774 CE when Charlemagne conquered it. The Duchies of Benevento and Spoleto lost independence during the Norman Conquest (1055-1077).
The Langobard total population that invaded Italy was less than 150 thousand people. Once they settled in the new lands, they tried to save the ‘warrior’ culture [2]. The women seemed to be either more eager to absorb the new culture or to inter-marry as can be deducted from the grave goods [2]. Since the number of Lombards was small and they tended to form the elite of society, they had to use the local Latin and Gothic population as source for servants, tenants and slaves [3]. And they had already contacts with the Roman culture when they were hired by the Byzantines to fight against other invaders. The Langobard king would appoint loyal retainers to serve as local commanders and judges, called the dux (duke) or gastald. They were usually given a royal grant of land that allowed them to maintain the urban lifestyle. Others helped themselves to the estates of the local landowners who were displaced, sometimes brutally or escaped to the security of the Byzantine’s Ravenna [1]. With time, the Latin nobility entered the ranks of Langobards through service to the king or by marriage. When woman married into Langobard family, she and her children became Langobards themselves and were treated as such by the law [3].

My ‘summer persona’

My summer persona is Grisiltruda Fortunata, a daughter of Langobard and a local Latin woman. She is treated as Langobard, is first a member of her Father’s royal fara (lineage) and then married off to the commander (dux) of  Trecio. Since she is educated, she looks to the best source of the knowledge, the Byzantines. In the early medieval Europe, the Byzantines and the Greek language were treated as epitome of best style, taste and elegance, quite similar as France was in 17th and 18th centuries. The household at the Trecio stronghold would be supervised by Grisiltruda Fortunata and ran with the help of slaves and servants. She would look to the Byzantines rules for good life (including the cooking) and also use the traditional local recipes that were passed on through the generations in her own family.
We do not have knowledge of the number of meals a day the elite Langobards had, but based on Latin traditions, we can assume there was a simple breakfast at rising, a midday dish that usually was a mix of leftovers from previous day and the biggest meal of the day, the supper (cena) in the evening. Cold cuts of meat would be a good example of dish for midday. It was served with pre-cut bread and selection of thick sauces, similar to modern dips [4]. The tradition of thick sauces come from antiquity when especially during the evening meal, people ate while reclining on couches and so they had only one hand free to use. By early modern times, most people ate all meals sitting in chairs or standing (if they had a fast food from street vendor), but the tradition of thick sauces survived.

The source for recipe

Unfortunately, there are no recipes books from the Regnum Italicum. The only barbaric treatise on cooking and health by Anthimus was created in the early 6th century Gaul and was heavily influenced by the Roman traditions [5].
I have found a very detailed report from the excavations at modern Trezzo sull’Adda [6]. The research revealed types of organic matter that was taken from the site. The following animals and plants could have been used for cooking at the site:

Animals: domesticated cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), domestic goat (Capra hircus), wild pig (Sus scrofa), hare (Lepus sp.), chicken (Gallus gallus), northern pike (Esox lucius), Roman snail (Helix pomatia);

Fruits: cornelian cherry dogwood (Cornus mas), common fig (Ficus carica), English walnut (Juglans regia), wild strawberry (Frugaria vesca), cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera), wild cherry (Prunus avium), common hazel (Corylus avellana), blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), elderberry (Sambucus sp.), grape vine (Vitis vinifera);

Grains, legumes and vegetables: barley (Horderum vulgare), oats (Avena sativa), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), rye (Secale cereale), triticale (Triticum secale), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), white pea (Lathyrus sativus), common vetch (Vicia sativa), fava bean (Vicia faba minor), calabash (Lagenaria siceraria), parsley or carrot family (Apiaceae), poisonberry (Solanum dulcamara), lady’s thumb (Persicaria maculosa), wild buckwheat (Fallopia convolvulus), goosefoot (spinach alternative) (Chenopodium album).

I also follow the calendar regime for healthy living by Hierophilus the Sophist. I was able to locate the original Greek text and translation by Delatte and I follow the translation by Andrew Dalby [7] [8]. My inspiration for bread came from the textbook on food processing in ancient Rome [9] and the description of favorite white bread of the Byzantines from De Cibis Vetitis [10]. I also borrowed from Apicius since the Roman traditions were still strong in barbarized Italy (Bibliotheca Augustana
http://www.hs-augsburg.de/~harsch/Chronologia/Lspost04/Apicius/api_re00.html) [4].

The original recipes of Apicius were modified to follow the rules of June by Hierophilus the Sophist by changing ingredients.

Original recipes

The rules for month of June
(Greek text from book by Dalby [8])

greek text 1

greek texxt 2
[vi] June
June governs the hot blood. [On rising] swallow three small doses of cold water, slowly, and then fast until the third hour. Choose all relatively cold foods, in moderation, and avoid the more bitter and dry flavors such as pepper, cloves, cinnamon and spicy products. Among garden herbs garlic, onion, leeks, radish, rocket, cress, mustard and chopped oregano, mint. I Savory and butcher’s broom to be avoided. Among meats, rich lamb or kid: prefer the meat of male animals, and do not take any fat. They should be pastured or milk-fed lambs: no spicing is required at all except coriander, spikenard and anise. Take oregano moderately. Avoid drinking any kind of soup. Among birds, eat hens, chickens, young brakata pigeons, roasted and served hot. Take aromatic
and anise-flavored kondita and light wines with hot water, not old or deeply-coloured wines. Among fish, eat all the rich-fleshed ones including wrasse, perch, gurnard, sparaillon, daurade, grouper, gobies and all soft fleshed fish. Avoid bass, grey mullet, corkwing, red mullet, rascasse, pagre, lobster, crab and all hard-shelled and coarse-fleshed seafood. Dips should be based on honey vinegar. Fish soups should be spiced with spikenard, anise and coriander; fried fish only moderately [spiced]. Lettuce, endive, white celery, dressed with squill vinegar, to be taken moderately: copious amounts of lettuce dim the eyesight.
Among fruits eat ‘white’ cherries and cucumbers, moderately. Anything not listed should be avoided this month. Eight baths in the course of the month: no skin lotion at all this month. Ointment and soap, of the same ingredients, until the 21st of the month. No love-making.                                                                                                                                          Hierophilus the Sophist (translation by Andrew Dalby)[8].

The bread (De Cibis 2.) [10]

(Greek text)

greek tex t3 bread
(Latin text)

bread latin
White bread
Bread made from wheat is the best and most nutritious of all foods. Particularly if white, with a moderate use of yeast and salt, the dough kneaded midway between dryness and rawness, and with a little anise, fennel seed and mastic, it is very fine indeed. One with a hot constitution should include sesame in the dough. If wishing to add more moistness to the bread, knead in some almond oil.
(Translation by Andrew Dalby)[8]

The lamb
Haedus sive agnum Tarpeianum,  Apicius 8.6.9
Haedum sive agnum Tarpeianum: antequam coquatur, ornatus consuitur. piper, rutam, satureiam, cepam, thymum modicum, et liquamine collues haedum, macerabis, ‹mittes› in furno, in patella quae oleum habeat. cum percoxerit, perfundes in patella impensam, teres satureiam, cepam, rutam, dactilos, liquamen, vinum, caroenum, oleum. cum bene duxerit impensam, in disco pones, piper asparges et inferes.
(Latin text)                                                                                                                            (http://www.hs-augsburg.de/~harsch/Chronologia/Lspost04/Apicius/api_re00.html)
Kid or Lamb à la Tarpeius
Before cooking, prepare and sew up. Pepper, rue, savory, onions, and a little thyme and stock. Thoroughly moisten the kid: steep it. Then put in a pan with some olive oil. When completely cooked, pour the sauce into the pan: grind savory, onion, rue, dates, and stock, boiled wine and olive oil. Until the sauce has thicken and then turn onto ring-shaped dish. Sprinkle with pepper and serve.
(Translation)

The sauces (dips)
Sauce for Tidbits Jus in copadiis, Apicius 7.6.12
Ius in copadiis: ova dura incidis, piper, cuminum, petroselinum, porrum coctum, myrtae bacas, plusculum mel, acetum, liquamen, oleum.
(Latin text)                                                                                                                                  (http://www.hs-augsburg.de/~harsch/Chronologia/Lspost04/Apicius/api_re00.html)
Sauce for Sauce for cooked meat
Hard boiled eggs, pepper, cumin, parsley, leeks, myrtle berries, honey, mead, vinegar, and fish sauce and oil.
(Translation)

Mint sauce for wild sheep, Apicius 8.6.1
Ius in ovifero fervens: piper, ligusticum, cuminum, mentam siccam, thymum, silfi, suffundes vino, adicies damascena macerata, mel, vinum, liquamen, acetum, passum ad colorem, oleum. agitabis fasciculo origani et mentae siccae.                                              (Latin text)                                                                                                                            (http://www.hs- augsburg.de/~harsch/Chronologia/Lspost04/Apicius/api_re00.html)          For wild sheep: Pepper, lovage, cumin, dried mint, thyme and laser. Moisten with wine. Damsons soaked, honey, wine, stock, vinegar, some raisin wine for color, and olive oil. Stir with bouquet of oregano and dried mint.
(Translation)

Redacted recipes

I use modern kitchen equipment and modern range for cooking. I live in an apartment and I do not really have way of cooking in open fire. I try to grind my spices as needed in a mortar so the taste is more intense. I also try to chop all ingredients required in recipes.

pict 1
Fig.1.Some of my more traditional kitchen utensils – wooden mixing devices and the mortar.

I can say one thing- it is difficult to recreate many of the original procedures without help. Cooking used to be an effort of several people who cooperated in order to provide food, especially in larger households. So I looked at modern kitchen appliances and electric as equivalent of servant and slave labor.
I also use the Thai fish sauce that is made of anchovies which is a source of salt in many recipe. I have a recipe for the original garum, but I am not sure I want to experiment with this kind of processing in my apartment. When the consistency of the sauce is too rare, I add a little bit of fava bean flour as thickener (it was known in late antiquity), When it is too thick, I add more of the liquids mentioned in recipe, usually depending on the overall taste.

Bread
There is no period recipe for bread that gives the exact amounts of individual ingredients. I based my redaction on my family recipe and the tips from English bread and yeast cookery [11]. I use a mix of white and whole wheat flour to obtain the ‘whiteness’ of the bread which was highly valued by the Romans and Byzantine. We do not know if they age flour to let it be oxidized and bleached, but there are suggestions they added chalk to make it whiter [9].
The shape of the loaves is formed based on images that survived form antiquity (sculptures and mosaics) [9] [12]. I use the direct fermentation procedure, adding the yeast directly to the mass of flour. There is evidence that the Roman bakers were familiar both with the direct fermentation and the sponge fermentation. They also made a dried starter that can last up to a year:
‘The likely predominant yeast species of most ancient winemaking, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, var. ellipsoideus, was essentially the same as that used in brewing; the difference is that wine fermentation by its very nature must proceed once a year during the vintage, whereas cereal fermentation, because of the dry, stable nature of cereals, can proceed at will; thus beer and ale can be brewed year round, though cooler temperatures are preferred. The Romans contrived an ingenious technique for combining the two. As usual, it is Pliny who explains the process. Millet, for one, he says, is used to make leaven. Millet flour is dipped in must (i.e., unfermented grape juice; must in antiquity was spontaneously fermented, since there are ample yeast cells occurring naturally on the grape ‘bloom’ to initiate the process), then kneaded and (presumably) dried. Cakes made in this fashion, Pliny assures us, will remain viable a whole year, and doubtless he is right; properly stored, yeast cells are incredibly hardy’ [9].

pict 2

Fig. 2. A typical Roman panis quadratus. The skin is incised before baking to create the eight wedges to make division of the loaf easier. (From Peter Conolly and Hazel Dodge, The Ancient City. Oxford (1998): 165. Courtesy of Oxford University Press).

4 cups white bread flour 1 T anise (ground)
0.8 oz. active yeast cake or 1 T. fennel seed, ground
2 cups whole wheat flour 2 T almond oil
1 ½ t  salt 2 cups of tepid  water
Oil to grease the baking sheet

 Put yeast in cup, cover with tepid water, let grow for 10 minutes. Combine flour with salt and almond oil, mix well. Pour in the creamed yeast into the center of the flour, add more water and knead until the dough is elastic and comes easily from the sides of bowl. Cover with saran wrap and plate. Let grow for ~2 hours or until expands twice in volume. Break in with fist and gather up and slap it down several times. Sprinkle with more flour and knead by folding the dough several times. Repeat 2-3 times, splitting the dough in two pieces and adding the spices at the last kneading. Form round balls and place on baking sheet, slightly greased. Let rise again and then incise the lines into loaves (first cross, then in the interstices of the cross). Bake in preheated oven at 400o F for about 30 minutes or until the loaves sound when lightly tapped. Leave until cooled down, best overnight before storing away.

Lamb à la Tarpeius
2 T fish sauce
1 t ground spikenard
2 T olive oil
1 t freshly ground coriander
2 T white wine
1 t ground anise
2 T vinegar (wine)
Lamb shoulder roast (I could hardly process a whole lamb in my apartment and the price was aslo a limitation)

Combine all the ingredients save the meat. Turn the lamb over in the mixture and leave  overnight. Take the meat out of the marinade and roast the meat in the oven at 350o F, basting it often with the marinade until well done and crisp.

Sauce for cooked meat, Apicius 7.6.12
3 heaped T chopped watercress
3 T honey
2 hard-boiled eggs, shelled
2 T vinegar
½ small leek with the dark green removed
2 T olive oil
1 t ground lavender
2 T fish sauce
1 t chopped fresh oregano
½ t ground ginger

Mix the watercress, spice and herb. Chop the leek and cook in a little water. Strain and place in a food processor and process into a paste. Add the cooked eggs and process again. Add the spice and herb mixture, honey, vinegar, oil and fish sauce and blend by pulsing a few times. Transfer to a bowl. Only store in the fridge if you are preparing or storing left-over sauce overnight. Preparing it the day before does improve the flavor but bring back to room temperature before serving.

Mint sauce for wild sheep 8.6.1
3 heaped t chopped fresh mint
1/8 cup raisins, finely chopped
3 heaped t chopped fresh oregano
4 T vinegar
1 level t celery seed
1 T olive oil
1/4 t ground thyme
2 T honey
Dash of ground pepper

Roast and grind celery seed, and combine with the herbs, raisins and spices in a bowl. Add the other liquids and whisk together. If necessary, warm the honey a little to ensure it blends fully with the other ingredients.

Serving the proper way

The dish of lamb is served as cold cuts of meat on bread, with a splash of sauce of choice. This was a fast meal, without special celebration although in wealthy household it was a time for short rest [4].
The Romans and the early Byzantines knew the idea of set of serving plates (‘the dinner service’). The metal ware in wealthy households was usually made of silver and decorated with various topics, from hunting to classical heroes and floral medallions [12]. The service was accompanied by pitchers, basins for washing hands and feet, flasks, ewers, amphorae, cups, a ‘tray’ (platter), knives, spoons and drinking cups. Besides silver, gold was used for imperial family, while tinned copper was used for servant of large households. Drinking vessels were also made from glass.
Forks were rare. Known silver forks have spoon-like handles or form part a folding set of utensils [12]. There is also a double ended fork-spoon combination dated to late antiquity, around 3rd century CE (http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/257863).
There was also the Constantinople-produced White Ware pottery which especially copied the Asian tea-cup shape drinking vessels [12].
Excavations at Langobard sites in Northern Italy yielded several pieces of pottery, glass and metal ware plates, cups and spoons [6]. For example, glass cup and silver alloy bowl with handles were recovered form site at Fiesole – Firenze.

pict 3
Fig. 3. Copper alloy basin with handles. (http://www.museidifiesole.it/opencms/opencms/it/collezione/longobardi/).

pict 4
Fig. 4. A selection of object from a site at Fiesole, including glass drinking vessel and wine serving amphora (http://www.museidifiesole.it/opencms/opencms/it/collezione/longobardi/).

Since I cannot locate any source for reasonable priced replicas, I search second hand stores for plates, bowls and trays that have some resemblance to the originals. I am trying to recreate the style of table setting as shown in Fig. 5. I will use a deep, handled bowl for the lamb cold roast, white ceramic bowls for the sauces, round tray for the whole bread loaf and hexagonal bowl for bread slices. I will add spoons, unfortunately quite modern. The meat should be sliced during the meal by a servant – I guess I will play this part. Usually there was warmed wine for drinking, sweetened with honey and/or date syrup or grape juice. There were containers with hot water available (similar to Russian samovars) for diluting wine to one’s taste (Fig.6). The Germanic people would add beer to the table set up.
There is some evidence linen presses existed in ancient Rome (mosaics in Pompeii), but I have not come through any extant pieces. For the time being, I use modern white napkins (white napkins were carried by courtiers in Byzantium) [13].

pict 5
Fig. 5. Antioch, House of the Buffet Supper: floor mosaic of silver service with meal displayed (Photo: Cyril Mango) [12].

pict 6

Fig. 6. Copper-alloy samovars excavated at a. Sardis (After J. C. Waldbaum, Metalwork from Sardis [Cambridge, MA, 1983], pl. 34, no. 522); and b. Ballana, Nubia (After W. B. Emery and L. P. Kirwan, The Royal Tombs at Ballana and Qustul [London, 1938], pl. 93D).

Lesson learnt

I believe I can justify my choice of lamb and other ingredients used to prepare the dish. And I have fun trying to balance the sauces.
Next I am going to cook a dish of vegetable, even if there were not valued highly at the dawn of early modern Italy [8].
I am also in need of table linens. I am planning to decorate them with embroidery with motifs from tablet woven Langobard trims and Coptic designs. I plan to get more information on the cooking in Regnum Italicum, mostly by contacting more researchers in Italy. They may have a better knowledge of local re-enactment groups that look into Longobard customs.

Bibliography

Bibliography

[1]      C. Wickham, Early Medieval Italy : central power and local society, 400-1000, no. AA198. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1989.

[2]      N. Christie, The Lombards : the ancient Longobards. Oxford, UK Cambridge, USA: Blackwell, 1995.

[3]      The Langobards Before the Frankish Conquest: An Ethnographic Perspective. Boydell & Brewer, Incorporated, 2009.

[4]      Apicius, C. W. Grocock, and S. Grainger, Apicius: a critical edition with an introduction and an English translation of the Latin recipe text Apicius. Prospect, 2006.

[5]      Anthimus, On the observance of foods. Prospect Books, 2007.

[6]      S. Lusuardi Siena and C. Giostra, Archeologia medievale a Trezzo sull’Adda. Il sepolcreto longobardo e l’oratorio di san Martino. Le chiese di Santo Stefano e San Michele in Sallianense. Vita e Pensiero, 2012.

[7]      Anecdota atheniensia … Imp. H. Vaillant-Carmanne, 1939.

[8]      A. Dalby, Tastes of Byzantium: The Cuisine of a Legendary Empire (Google eBook). I.B.Tauris, 2010.

[9]      D. L. Thurmond, A Handbook of Food Processing in Classical Rome: For Her Bounty No Winter. Brill, 2006.

[10]    M. Maimonides and M. Wöldike, De cibis vetitis (Google eBook). Paulli, 1734.

[11]    E. David, English bread and yeast cookery. Viking Press, 1980.

[12]    Eat, Drink, and be Merry (Luke 12:19): Food and Wine in Byzantium : Papers of the 37th Annual Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, in Honour of Professor A.A.M. Bryer, PDF. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.

[13]    J. Ball, Byzantine dress : representations of secular dress in eighth- to twelfth-century painting, 1st ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Measurement units
T- tablespoon
t- teaspoon
oz – US ounce (28.35 g)
cup – ~236.6 mL

I wished I had asked someone to take pictures before the food was gone. The mint sauce was gone right away. And the lamb bones were cleaned even of the marrow.

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Tarte of beans – a Renaissance recipe

Original recipe

Source: A Proper newe Booke of Cokerye (mid-16th c. English)

Text: Frere, Catherine Frances (ed.): A proper newe booke of cokerye. With notes, introduction and glossary; together with some account of domestic life, cookery and feasts in Tudor days, and of the first owner of the book, Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Margaret Parker his wife. Cambridge: W. Heffer& Sons Ltd. 1913
Full text available online at http://www.staff.uni-giessen.de/gloning/tx/bookecok.htm

”To make short paest for tarte.

Take fyne floure and a cursey of fayre water and a dysche of swete butter and a lyttel saffron, and the yolckes of two egges and make it thynne and as tender as ye maye.

To make a tarte of beanes.

Take beanes and boyle them tender in fayre water, then take theym oute and breake them in a morter and strayne them with the yolckes of foure egges, curde made of mylke, then ceason it up with suger and halfe a dysche of butter and a lytle synamon and bake it.”

My redaction of ”to make a Tarte of Beans”

Pastry for Crust
2 1/4 cups whole wheat flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
3/4 cup butter, soften and cut up
2 egg yolks, lightly beaten
¼ cup water
A pinch of saffron
I combine flour and salt. Then I cut in butter with knife. I mix egg yolks, saffron and water (by hand) and stir quickly until dough is evenly moistened. I roll it into two layers to fit a 9” pie pan. Actually this recipe is very similar to tart pastry that is made by my Mother. So I follow her method with addition of saffron and substituting water for wine.

Filling for the tarte of beans
1 ¼ cup dry chickpeas and common beans
4 egg yolks
½ cup cheese (I mix my own dry cottage cheese and commercial curd cheese for moistness)
6 T sugar
6 T butter (soft, cut)
4 t cinnamon
½ t nutmeg
I cook the beans in 2 ½ cups of water, bring to boil and let sit covered for 70 minutes. Then I add another cup of water, boil about 50-60 minutes until soft. I am usually lazy and forget to soak the beans the day before and this method make the soaking unnecessary.
I drain beans and mush them in bowl. After cooling the paste and then adding the cheese, sugar, butter and spices, I mash it all to a rare paste. Then I put the filling into pie baking form with 2/3 of the raw dough used and even the filling. Then I roll the remaining 1/3 dough and cover well, combing the upper and lower pastry layers. Usually I bake for at least 60 minutes (the stick has to come clean) at 350o F. It can be served both hot or cold. I like it cold, with additional sugar on top. The nutmeg add a distinctive taste (taste less ‘beany’).

In case anybody asks, I make the cheese by culturing whole pasteurized milk with plain Chobani yogurt (2-3 days at room temperature, my apartment is on the warm side). Then I heat it until I see the curds forming and then drain in in cheese cloth. From 2 ½ cup milk I can make ~ 200 gram dry curd cheese.
I use the modern oven and commercially available ingredients. Since I do not eat meat, I am always in search of new meatless recipes. This recipe comes from Tudor England (pie) (1) but actually beans were popular in both in medieval and 16th century Italy where my persona lives (2). Dishes made of various kinds of bean (chickpeas, fava, white- probably a variety of common bean) are mentioned in connection with renaissance time Italy (3) and so it is easy to imagine a similar sweet dish made in Italian household, served at the end of simple meal.
Ingredients:
Whole wheat flour, chickpeas, common beans, eggs, cheese, butter, sugar, cinnamon, nutmeg, saffron.

Bibliography

1. Frere, C. F., Parker, M., Ahmed, A., and Mizuta, C. (2002) A Proper Newe Booke of Cokerye: Margaret Parker’s Cookery Book, Corpus Christi College
2. Zambrini, F. (1863) Il libro della cucina del sec. XIV: testo di lingua non mai fin qui stampato, G. Romagnoli (free Google ebook)
3. Cohen, E. S., and Cohen, T. V. (2001) Daily Life in Renaissance Italy, Greenwood Press

Anointing the living and the dead – the art of perfumery in antiquity – part 2

 

‘Ergo regale unguentum appellatum, quoniam Parthorum regibus ita temperatur, constat myrobalano, costo, amomo, cinnamo comaco, cardamomo,nardi spica, maro, murra, casia, styrace, ladano, opobalsamo, calamo iuncoque Syriis, oenanthe, malobathro, serichato, cypro, aspalatho, panace, croco, cypiro, amaraco, loto, melle, vino. Nihilque eius rei causa in Italia victrice omnium, in Europa vero tota praeter irim Illyricam et nardum Gallicum gignitur: nam vinum et rosa et myrti folia oleumque communia fere omnium terrarum intellegantur.’

 

‘What then is called the ‘royal’ unguent, because it is a blend prepared for the kings of Parthia, is made of behen-nut juice, costus, amomum, Syrian‘cinnamon, cardamom, spikenard, cat-thyme, myrrh, cinnamon-bark, styrax-tree gum, ladanum, balm, Syrian flag and Syrian rush, wild grape, cinnamon leaf, serichatum, cyprus, camel’s thorn, all-heal, saffron, gladiolus, marjoram, lotus, honey and wine. And none of the components of this scent is grown in Italy, the conqueror of the world, and indeed none in the whole of Europe excepting the iris in Illyria and nard in Gaul—for as to wine and roses and myrtle leaves and olive oil, they may be taken as belonging to pretty well all countries in common.’

PLINY THE ELDER, Natural History LCL 370: 108-109 (Pliny and Rackham 1938)

 

Chapter 2 – Perfume of the King of Parthia, prepared according to Pliny the Elder recipe from “Natural History.’

 

Perfumes were part of the extravagant life of the wealthy people of antiquity. The Parthian perfume was supposed to be used by the kings and to be the most complex and expensive perfume of the classic antiquity. I have my doubts about the origins of the recipe. Real Parthian recipe should include white sandalwood (Santalum album) and camphor in its list of ingredients  (Grami 2013; Mohagheghzadeh, Zargaran, and Daneshamuz 2011). I suspect that a talented perfume seller/maker advertised an expensive perfume to the wealthiest elites and used the ‘King of Parthia’ name as a trademark to justify the price. The Romans were sworn enemies with the Parthians and officially abhorred the luxurious lifestyle of the Parthian aristocracy, but secretly ‘adopted’ many of its elements, including love for exotic perfumes and silks (Voudouri and Tesseromatis 2015; Schlude 2009)(Pollard 2009).

The perfume for the Parthian king consists of several ingredients, known for their olfactory and therapeutic properties. In my redaction of this recipe the following substances were used: moringa oil (Moringa oleifera), Retsina Kourtoki white wine, saffron (Crocus sativus), costus root (Saussurea lappa), balsam (Commiphora opoponax), benzoin resin (Styrax benzoides), labdanum resin (Cistus villosus var. creticus ), cyperus  (Cyperus rotundus), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), black cardamom (Amomum subulatum), cassia (Cinnamomum cassia), cinnamon chips (Cinnamomum verum), myrrh (Commiphora myrrha), storax bark (Liquidambar orientalis), spikenard root (Nardostachys jatamansi), orris rhizome (Iris germanica), calamus root (Acorus calamus), rhodiola root (Rhodiola rosea), wild mint (Mentha longifolia), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis),  lemongrass (Andropogon schoenathus), lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla), marjoram (Origanum majorana), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), Hagar resin (Commiphora erythrea), cypress absolute essential oil (Cupressus sempervirens) and blue lotus absolute essential oil (Nymphaea caerulea). The first impression (when I was bottling the freshly expelled green oil) was of heavy oriental spicy notes (Fig.1).

 

parthian perfume

Fig.1. The Parthian perfume stored in a glass bottle.

As the perfume ages (and it may takes months according to Dioscorides and Theophrastus writings), the overall scent will change and mature. I am looking forward to observing this process as it may offer directions for improving the recipe version.

 

The extant perfume recipe

 

The perfume of the King of Parthia is mentioned in ‘Natural History’ by Pliny the Elder as the most expensive and flamboyant perfume in existence. The detailed recipe unfortunately does not contain any amounts of individual ingredients (Pliny and Rackham 1938). I used several sources to try to reconcile the different translations and interpretations of Pliny the Elder’s Latin text. I used three different editions of ‘Natural History’  (Pliny and Rackham 1938; Pliny 2016; Pliny the Elder, Bostock, and Riley 1855), Galen’s  pharmacopeia (Everett 2012) and two translations of Dioscorides’  ‘De Materia Medica’ (Riddle 2013; Dioscorides Pedanius, Osbaldeston, and Wood 2000). I also consulted many modern books on medicinal and aromatic plants from the Mediterranean Sea region and Middle East  (Duke and Duke 2008; Baumann 1993; Yaniv 2016). My interpretation is just one possible version of this recipe. The recipe ingredients are summarized in Table 1:

Latin name Translation (Loeb edition) Translation (Delphi edition) Possible identity of ingredient Ingredient used in this project
myrobalano behen-nut juice myrobalanus Moringa (ben oil)                  Moringa oleifera Moringa (ben oil)           Moringa oleifera
costo costus costus Costus root Saussurea lappa Costus root      Saussurea lappa
amomo amomum amomum black cardamom Amomum subulatum black cardamom seeds Amomum subulatum
cinnamo comaco Syrian cinnamon cinnamon, comacum cinnamon chips Cinnamomum verum                     Cinnamom Zeylanicum   or nutmeg seeds            Myristica fragrans cinnamon chips Cinnamomum verum and nutmeg seeds          Myristica fragrans
cardamomo Cardamom

 

 

 

 

cardamum cardamom Elettaria cardamomum cardamom  Elettaria cardamomum
nardi spica spikenard spikenard spikenard roots Nardostachys jatamansi spikenard roots Nardostachys jatamansi
maro cat-thyme marum Cat-thyme   Teucrium maru not available at this time

mint leaf powder (Mentha longifolia) was used instead

murra myrrh myrrh myrrh gum resin Commiphora myrrha myrrh gum resin Commiphora myrrha
casia cinnamon-bark cassia Cassia powder Cinnamomum cassia Cassia powder Cinnamomum cassia
Styrace

 

 

 

 

 

 

styrax tree gum storax storax bark (sweet gum)                   Liquidambar orientalis                or benzoin resin Styrax benzoides

 

storax bark      Liquidambar orientalis and  benzoin resin Styrax benzoides
ladano ladanum ladanum gum labdanum resin                                               Cistus villosus var. creticus gum labdanum resin  Cistus villosus var. creticus
opobalsamo balm opobalsamum Balsam (sweet myrrh)  Commiphora opoponax Balsam (sweet myrrh) gum resin       Commiphora opoponax
calamo iuncoque Syriis Syrian flag and Syrian rush Syrian calamus and Syrian sweet rush Lemon (camel) grass Andropogon schoenathus   Schoenus mariscus

calamus root Acorus calamus

Lemon (camel) grass Andropogon schoenathus  and   lemon verbena     Aloysia triphylla  and lemon balm            Melissa officinalis    and calamus root Acorus calamus              
oenanthe wild grape oenanthe Oenanthe pimpinellifolia

 

Not available at this time
malobathro cinnamon-leaf malobathrum Indian bay leaf  Laurus cassia or Laurus malabratus or Cinnomom tamela

or betel leaf   Piper betle

Not available at this time (the ordered spice was not delivered so far)
serichato serichatum serichatum Chinese cinnamon Cinnamomum aromaticum Cassia powder Cinnamomum cassia
cypro cyprus cyprus cypress        Cupressus sempervirens cypress  essential oil Cupressus sempervirens
aspalatho camel’s thorn aspralathus rose wood Convolvulus scoparius

rhodium wood Convolvulus floridus

Rhodiola root Rhodiola rosea

Rhodiola root      Rhodiola rosea and

orris rhizome            Iris germanica

panace all-heal panax Opopanax       Panax Copticum  or Somalia Hagar resin Commiphora erythrea Somalia Hagar resin Commiphora erythrea
croco saffron saffron saffron             Crocus sativus saffron                      Crocus sativus
cypiro gladiolus cypirus gladiolus     Gladiolus communis or nut grass (cyperos) rhizome Cyperus rotundus nut grass (cyperos) rhizome                      Cyperus rotundus
amaraco marjoram sweet marjoram marjoram Origanum majorana

 

 

marjoram          Origanum majorana
loto lotus lotus blue lotus Nymphaea caerulea Blue lotus essential oil Nymphaea caerulea
melle honey honey raw honey clover raw honey
vino wine wine resinated wine Retsina Kourtoki  white wine

Table 1. The original list of ingredients for the Parthian perfume and proposed use of plants in the redacted recipe.

 

Some plants are not available in US or will not survive the harsh winters of the Kingdom where I reside. I have managed to find a person interested in growing these perennial plants in a much balmier climate of the south. I am planning to import seeds for cat-thyme (Teucrium maru), Oenanthe pimpinellifolia, rose wood (Convolvulus scoparius) and rhodium wood (Convolvulus floridus). We will have to wait for the first harvest though, especially for the rose wood rhizome, as the roots are aromatic enough after at least 2-3 years of grow.

The cypress leaves and lotus flowers were substituted by absolute essential oils as the plant parts are not available in this country. The ancient resinated wine was substituted with modern Greek wine, Retsina Kourtoki, which contains less than 0.5% pine resin. The wines of antiquity contained between 5-10% of the resin (Bowring and Mill 1825; “Wines of the Ancients” 1836; Thurmond 2006). I have found a small vineyard in France that specializes in making the Roman wines of antiquity with high resin content and I am planning on buying them for future experimentation when I will be traveling this summer (http://www.tourelles.com/prestashop/index.php?id_category=6&controller=category&id_lang=1).

I have introduced the Eurasian mint leaves (Mentha longifolia) in place of cat-thyme to break a little bit the heavy spice notes in the Parthian perfume. Another departure from the original recipe was the addition of orris root (Iris germanica). It is a very good fixative in perfumes,  much more efficient than rhodiola  (Donato 1989).

The identity of  ‘calamo iuncoque Syriis’ is hard to determine so I used four different ingredients that may have been originally in the recipe, lemongrass, lemon verbena, lemon balm and calamus root. Their presence will counterbalance the heavy resin presence.

Since the best honey from Attica is not available nowadays, I used heated raw clover honey to cover surfaces of the glass bottle. Modern raw honey is the closest equivalent to ancient honey and the clover variety is very neutral in scent (Dioscorides Pedanius, Osbaldeston, and Wood 2000; Thurmond 2006).

 

Making  perfume

 

The experimental work was the most enjoyable part of this project. The perfumes are made in several steps which are spread over time. The recipes below mirror this extended processing time.

 

The ‘King of Parthia’s perfume.’

Day 1

  1. 4 g saffron soaked in 20 ml moringa oil at room temperature (RT),
  2. 1 g whole cardamom seeds soaked in 25 mL water overnight at RT,
  3. 1 g crushed black cardamom seeds soaked in 10 mL water overnight at RT,
  4. 5 g calamus root, 2 g myrrh and 5 g rhodiola root soaked in 50 mL Retsina Kourtoki wine overnight at RT.

Day 2

  1. 5 g costus root and 3.3 g balsam resin soaked in 25 mL Retsina Kourtoki wine for 2 hours at RT,
  2. water from cardamom soak was filtered through linen cloth,
  3. cardamom scented water and wine with soaked aromatics were combined in a Florentine glass flask and heated for 2 hours in a bain-marie (Fig.2),
  4. 3 g cyperus rhizome, 1 g storax bark, 3 g spikenard root, 2.5 g cinnamon chips, 3 g orris roots chips, 3 g benzoin resin  and 50 mL moringa oil  were added to the flask, mixed and the heating in the bain-marie continued for another hour.

 

florence flask

Fig.2. The bain-marie (double boiler) fits different shape of glass vessels. Shown the Florentine flask with Parthian perfume.

Day 3

  1. 4 g Hagar resin, 1 g marjoram, 1.2 g grated nutmeg, 2 g cassia powder, 1 g labdanum resin, 2 g lemon grass and 10 drops cypress essential oil (EO) were added to the Florentine flask,
  2. 10 mL Retsina Kourtoki and 15 mL moringa oil were added and the aromatics mix was heated in bain-marie for an hour.

Day 4

  1. moringa oil with soaking saffron was filtered through linen cloth and the oil was added to the flask with aromatics mix,
  2. 3 g powdered mint, 1.5 g lemon balm and 1.5 g lemon verbena were added to the aromatics mix,
  3. 25 mL moringa oil was added to the flask and the flask was heated for an hour in bain-marie.

Day 5

  1. 40 drops of cypress EO and 24 drops of blue lotus EO were added to the aromatics in the flask, mixed and left overnight at RT.

Day 6

  1. the glass bottle for the perfume storage was filled with small amount of raw honey, heated to liquid form, and the bottle was turned around until the internal surfaces were covered with honey (Fig.3),
  2. the aromatics mix was transferred to a large piece of double folded linen and the aromatic oil was squeezed into the bottle by twisting the linen cloth containing the plant matter.

 

honey bottle

Fig.3. Different steps in making the perfumes. Covering the internal surfaces of a storage bottle with honey for the Parthian perfume.

 

The final yield of the perfume is approximately 60 mL. I do not have enough strength in my hands to fully expel the aromatized oil from the plant matter and I am considering looking for some kind of press to help with this final process of the perfume making. The perfume at the time of bottling have mostly the oriental notes of the resins and the blue lotus aroma as it was the last ingredient added. Usually the last added element defines the perfume character but the flowery aromas are the least stable (Dioscorides Pedanius, Osbaldeston, and Wood 2000; Brun, Fernandez, and Voinot 2015). This experiment will have a follow up part to observe the changes in scent over time.

I have collected some replicas of period glassware and pottery that would be used for making and storing perfume in antiquity. The glassware is generally described as Roman type but similar items were discovered much earlier across Middle East (Dayagi-Mendeles and Muzeʼon Yiśraʼel (Jerusalem) 1993; Nassau 1980) (Larson 2016; Grossmann 2001). The extant glass bottles are missing the stoppers whereas the modern replicas include the glass ones (Fig.4).

 

glassFig.4. Different types of perfume bottle used in antiquity in the Mediterranean Sea region and across Middle East. A, glass, 1st century CE, B, perfume juglet of the Cypro-Phoenician type, 9th-8th centuries BCE (Dayagi-Mendeles and Muzeʼon Yiśraʼel (Jerusalem) 1993) and C, Replica glass perfume bottles with stoppers and glass juglets.

 

Discussion and summary

 

The main objective of this project was to recreate the period perfumes of antiquity and I believe that this goal has been achieved and the lessons learnt will help others who are interested in working with scents.

Following the period recipes was the biggest challenge. We do not know exact amounts required for making these particular perfumes and therefore the final scent cannot be really predicted. Determination of the ingredients based on the original text is another problem. Many plants and aromatics can have several modern equivalents and we do not really know which one is the correct one. Trying to reconcile all the major texts of antiquity on plants is a real work.

As much as I followed the extant sources, I have introduced some changes into the recipes. The Parthian perfume was enriched with wild mint and orris rhizome which are not in the original list of ingredients. Mint was added to break the overly spicy aroma, as the cat thyme would originally do. Orris rhizome is the additional fixative in lieu of rose wood and to add more flowery aroma in place of Oenanthe pimpinellifolia.  The mysterious ‘calamo iuncoque Syriis’  was represented by four different substances (calamus root, lemongrass, lemon balm and lemon verbena) as there are conflicting opinions on what aroma is supposed to be introduced by this particular ingredient (Manniche 1999). The Indian bay leaf was originally ordered from India and did not arrive in time (lost package). Unfortunately none of the US sellers had this ingredient in stock when I tried to place the order.

This project will definitively open new avenues to explore. I need to find more efficient way to expel the aromatized oils from the plant matter to lower the stress on my hands. As I am not good in constructing stuff, I will probably look for collaboration on this project. The portable stove for outdoor events will be also useful for period cosmetic project. There are several recipes mentioned by Dioscorides which I would like to recreate next summer when I have the ability to gather fresh flower petals. And the Far East incense project will start this fall.

I wish I had much more time to dedicate to these two perfume projects. The time constraints (less than 7 weeks) are especially hard on the process of sourcing the necessary ingredients from different continents. Fortunately I have already started collecting relevant literature by the time I decided to go ahead with the project.

My advice for anyone interested in period perfumery art is to have at least 6 months for any major project. This should allow for gathering necessary documentation, sourcing ingredients and experimentation part.

 

Bibliography

 

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